Greywater treatment and reuse trends using membrane bioreactor technology

Authors

  • Pandit S Dept. of Civil Engineering, Adamas University, Kolkata-700126
  • Khan SK Dept. of Civil Engineering, Adamas University, Kolkata-700126
  • Majumder S Membrane &Separation Technology Division, CSIR-CGCRI, Kolkata-700032
  • Roy SN Dept. of Civil Engineering, Adamas University, Kolkata-700126
  • Ghosh S Membrane &Separation Technology Division, CSIR-CGCRI, Kolkata-700032

Keywords:

19 channel ceramic membrane, UF membrane, Greywater, Microorganisms, FTIR, FESEM

Abstract

In the present state of the economy, the water shortage has been emerged as a significant problem. The world is dealing with a lot of issues because of this. The pace at which freshwater is used has significantly expanded. Wastewater reusing will be the one and only remedy for this challenge. Numerous advanced techniques have been developed to clean wastewater for both potable and non-potable uses. The current study was done to reuse the waste (grey) water from the main canteen at Adamas University and use it for drinkable purposes utilizing membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology. Total wastewater generated daily from the university canteen is 12,200 litre. This was recorded and physicochemical characteristics like BOD5, DO, COD, TDS, oil and grease, MPN, TOC, and others were analyzed. With various sludge doses, a bio-reactor setup was created in which the most organic matter was breaking down. Many microorganisms including Amoeba sp., Daphnia sp., Brachionus sp., Tetrads and Rotifers were found in raw grey water and sludge respectively, according to observations made using an electron microscope. To ascertain the efficacy of sludge, studies of sludge using FTIR and FESEM were performed. Low-cost clay alumina based 19 channels configuration with TiO2-coated UF ceramic membranes developed at CSIR-CGCRI was applied in this study. Greywater that has been treated had a pH of 7.9. Oil and grease (99%); turbidity (99%); COD (99%); suspended solids (99%); BOD (99%); E. coli, total coliform; the efficacy of removal for all of the factors with the ultrafiltration membrane was as follows. Excellent results have been obtained from the permeate sample, which states that all the values of physicochemical parameters have successfully been reduced and when compared with the raw samples, clearly indicates that the treated water may be used for non-potable purposes and is within WHO-permissible limits.

References

References

Majumdar S., Sarkar S., Ghosh S., Bhattacharya P., Bandyopadhyay S., Saha A., Mukherjee S., Das D., Sharma GL. and Roy SN. 2018 New Trends for Wastewater Treatment and Their Reuse Using Ceramic Membrane Technology: A Case Study. Water Qual. Mgmt. 79: 339-348. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10- 5795-3_29.

Bandyopadhyay S., Kundu D., Roy SN., Ghosh BP. and Maiti HS. 2006 Process for preparing water having an arsenic level of less than 10PPB. US Patent 7014771.

Kele B., Wolfs P., Tomlinson I., Hood B. and Midmore D. 2005 Greywater Reuse in a Sewered Area Design and Implementation at Research House in Performance assessment for on-site systems: regulation, operation, and monitoring. Proceedings of On-site'05 Conference. Lanfax Laboratories. 257-264.

Laasri L., Elamrani MK. and Cherkaoui O. 2007 Removal of two cationic dyes from a textile effluent by filtration-adsorption on wood saw dust. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 14(4): 237- 240. doi: 10.1065/espr2006.08.331.

Kim J., Song I., Oh H., Jong J., Park J. and Choung Y. 2009 A laboratory scale grey water treatment system based on a membrane filtration and oxidation process—Characteristics of greywater from a residential complex. Desal. 238: 347–357. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2008.08.001.

Kumar P., Prasad B. and Chand S. 2009 Treatment of desizing wastewater by catalytic thermal treatment and coagulation. J. Hazard Mater.163: 433–440. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.06.114.

Ghaitidak DM. and Yadav KD. 2013 Characteristics and treatment of greywater: a review. Environ. Sci. Poll. Res. 20 (5): 2795-2809. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1533-0.

Jin L., Ng HY. and Ong SL. 2009 Performance and fouling characteristics of different pore- sized submerged ceramic membrane bioreactors (SCMBR). Water Sci. Technol. 59: 2213–2218. doi: 10.2166/wst.2009.256.

Abu-Ghunmi LN. and Jamrah AI. 2006 Biological treatment of textile wastewater using sequencing batch reactor technology. Environ Model Assess 11:333–343. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10666-005-9025-3.

Tolkou A., Zouboulis A. and Samaras P. 2014 The incorporation of ceramic membranes in MBR systems for waste water treatment: advantages and patented new developments. Recent Patent. Eng. 8(1): 24-32. doi: 10.2174/1872212107666131126234626.

Bhattacharya P., Sarkar S., Ghosh S., Majumdar S., Mukhopadhyay A. and Bandyopadhyay S. 2013 Potential of ceramic microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes for the treatment of grey water for an effective reuse. Desal. Wat. Treat. 51 (22-24): 4323-4332. doi:10.1080/19443994.2013.770198.

Gupta N., Jana N. and Majumder CB. 2008 Submerged membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment process: an overview. Indian J. Chem. Technol. 5: 604–612. http://nopr.niscpr.res.in/handle/123456789/2871.

Burnat J. and Mahmoud N. 2005 Evaluation of on-site grey waste water treatment plants performance in Bilien and Biet-DikoVillages/Palestine, Environment Protection Committee (EPC).

De Gisi S., Lofrano G., Grassi M. and Notarnicola M. 2016 Characteristics and adsorption capacities of low-cost sorbents for wastewater treatment: a review. Sustainable Mater. Technol. 9:10-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susmat.2016.06.002.

Li X., Xing Y., Jiang Y., Ding Y. and Li W. 2009 Antimicrobial activities of ZnO powder coated PVC film to inactivate food pathogens. Int. j food sci. technol. 44 (11): 2161-2168. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2009.02055.x.

Oron G., Adel M., Agmon V., Friedler E., Halperin R., Leshem E. and Weinberg D. 2014 Greywater use in Israel and worldwide: Standards and Prospects. Water Res. 58: 92-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.03.032.

Bodnar RJ., Lecumberri-Sanchez P., Moncada D. and Steele-MacInnis M. 2014 13.5–Fluid inclusions in hydrothermal ore deposits. Treatise on geochemistry. 2nd ed. Elsevier, Oxford, 119-142.

Wang S. and Zhu ZH. 2005 Sonochemical treatment of fly ash for dye removal from wastewater J Hazard Mater. 126: 91–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.06.009.

Lim J. and Yue Z. 2015 Neuronal aggregates: formation, clearance, and spreading. Dev. Cell. 32(4): 491-501. doi: 10.1016/j.devcel.2015.02.002.

Lim KY. and Jiang SC. 2013 Re-evaluation of health risk benchmark for sustainable water practice through risk analysis of rooftop-harvested rainwater. Water Res. 47(20):7273-7286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2013.09.059.

Filali H., Barsan N., Souguir D., Nedeff V., Tomozei C., Hachicha M. 2022 Greywater as an Alternative Solution for a Sustainable Management of Water Resources—A Review. Sustainabil. 14, 665. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020665.

Bhandare MR., Jamadar HV., Pathan AT., Chougule BK. and Shaikh AM. 2011 Dielectric properties of Cu substituted Ni0. 5− xZn0. 3Mg0. 2Fe2O4 ferrites. J alloys comp. 509(6): L113-L118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2010.11.173.

APHA, AWWA, WEF. 2005 Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 22nd ed. American Water Works Association, USA.

Friedler E., Kovalio R. and Ben-Zvi A. 2006 Comparative Study of the Microbial Quality of Greywater treated by Three On-Site Treatment Systems. Environ. Technol. 27(6):653-663. doi:10.1080/09593332708618674.

Shelar AB., Kalburgi SM., Kesare ND., Kushwah SU. and Choudhari SJ. 2019 Research Paper on Treatment of Grey Water using Low-Cost Technology for Kushvarta Kund Water. Int. Res. J Engin. Technol. 6(5): 7768-7774.

Roy SN., Bandyopadhyay S., Kundu D., Ghosh BP. and Maiti HS. 2007 Apparatus for the preparation of arsenic free water. US patent7309425.

Downloads

Published

2024-05-07

How to Cite

Pandit, S., Khan, S. kumar, Majumder, S., Roy, S. N., & Ghosh, S. (2024). Greywater treatment and reuse trends using membrane bioreactor technology. International Journal of Advanced Research Trends in Science, 3(1), 4–13. Retrieved from https://ijarts.aura-international.org/index.php/j/article/view/22

Issue

Section

Original Research Article